Senin, 31 Oktober 2011

Organ Reproduksi Manusia (Billingual)

Human Reproduction System


*The Diseases in Human Reproduction System
*Diseases in human reproduction system can be caused by microorganism in form of virus or bacteria. These diseases that are commonly transmitted through sexual relationship. The sexual diseases can attack both men or women.
*The example of sexual diseases as the effect of sexual relationship are as follows :
-AIDS and HIV
-The Gonorrhea
-The Syphilis
-The Genital Herpes
*HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
-HIV is a virus that attacks human body immunity
-The condition required for HIV is that the virus must enter the blood stream. The virus is extremely fragile and dies quickly outside the human body. It is also sensitive to heat and cannot live at a temperature above 60  degrees celcius. Its number has to be sufficiently high to be able to infect someone. HIV can survive in almost all human body fluids such as perspiration, silvia, tears, blood, semen, and vaginal secretions. The body fluids able to infect someone with HIV are blood, semen, and vaginal secretions. If one of those fluids contains HIV, it can infect another person.
*The explanation about HIV
HIV is different from another virus that actively attacks someone and easily spreads through various media like influenza virus that easily spreads by ordinary physical contact or through the air. Infection of HIV is very specific, it is found in sexual liquid, milk, and blood. So, its infection can be through syringe used by HIV sufferer, throgh blood transfusion, pregnant mother that suffers HIV to the baby in her womb, also commonly through sexual relationship.
*HIV is not infected through social contact, like shaking hand, talking, walking, and so on, because this virus will die after several hours lying outside the body. Therefor, we may not isolate the person who positively suffers HIV, on the contrary, we should even strengthen his/her mental because not all HIV sufferers are persons whose moral
*Transmission and Prevention
-HIV can be transmitted through direct injection into the bloodstream and mucous membrane contact or injured tissue with a certain body fluids from patients with HIV. Certain fluids that include blood, semen, secretions, vaginal and breast milk. Multiple routes of transmission of HIV is already known is through sexual intercourse, from mother to child (perintal), intarvena drug use, transfusions and transpalantasi, as well as exposure to the work.


2.
Female Reproductive Organs
-Ovarium is women sex gland serves to produce ovum and secrete estrogen and progesterone hormones.cccc
-Oviduct forms a pair of open funnel near the ovary surface, its wall has cilia that has function to help move the ovum
-Cervix, that is small hole found in the uterus base.
-Vagina is a duct located under uterus as a site to place spermatozoid at the time of copulation and as a way for the baby in the process of birth giving.
*Female Outer sex organ consist of :
-Clitoris :  That is a stucture which homologous with penis
-Vulva : Consist of labium majora and labium minora
-Urinary duct hole : the outer duct of urethra
-Vagina hole : the end of outer vagina

3.
*FERTILIZATION
Fertilization is a process of fusion between one sperm cell and one mature ovum cell, its produces zygot.
*BEFORE FERTILIZATON PROCESS
-Mature ovum will go out of the ovarium, its called ovulation
-The mature ovum will go into the Fallopian tubule
-Millions of sperm must walk from vagina to uterus and get into the Fallopian tube
-On their way, most sperms are destroyed by the acid mucous in the uterus and Fallopian tube
-Among the survive sperm cells, only one can get into the ovum membrane
-After fertilization, the ovum membrane will be hardened immediately to prevent other sperms to come
-The fertilization process takes place on the top one-third of Fallopian tube

*FERTILIZATION PROCESS `
-In several hours after fertilization zygote will cleave as mytosis into 2 cells, 4, 8, 16 cells
-In 3 days or 4days , the inner wall of uterus becomes thick like sponge, full of blood vessels, and its ready to accept zygote. Also make goup of cells which called morula. Morula will develop to be grastula
-In 6 days,  Blastula will stick in uterus wall and disfuss HCG hormone
-Continuing with grastula fase, in 21 days placenta wiil developing. From make 3 embrio wall layer. Embrio wall layer which will develop to body organs. Body organs will develop to be perfect along increasing the age of obstetrical
*FERTILIZATION PROCESS
*THE DEVELOPMENT FETUS IN WOMB
Because of musle contraction and cilia movement on the Fallopian tubes wall, zygote goes to uterus and sticks to the uterus wall to grow and develop
-Placenta and umbilical cord are formed as the connector between embryo and it’s mother’s tissue.
-Embryo is surrounded by amnion liquid
-A four week embryo has shown the growth of eyes, hands, and legs
-After six weeks, the size of an embryo turns to be 1.5 cm. Brain, eyes, ears and heart has developed. Hands, fingers and legs start to form
-After eight weeks, embryo has become a human complete with body organs. Legs, hands, and fingers have grown. From this stage until the birth, and embryo is called fetus
-After nine months and ten days of pregnancy, the baby is ready to be born
*DEVELOPMENT FETUS IN WOMB



4.
DESCRIBE THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
*Menstruation is also called menstrual bleeding, menses, catamenia or a period. The flow of menses normally serves as a sign that a woman has not become pregnant. (However, this cannot be taken as certainty, as a number of factors can cause bleeding during pregnancy; some factors are specific to early pregnancy, and some can cause heavy flow.) If  fertilization does not occur during the monthlycycle, the wall sloughs off and is discharged in the process known as MENSTRUATION.
*In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system as well as other systems (which lead to breast tenderness or mood changes, for example). A woman's first menstruation is termed menarche, and occurs typically around age 12-13. The average age of menarche is about 12.5 years in the United States, 12.72 in Canada, 12.9 in the UK and 13.06 ± 0.10 years in Iceland. The end of a woman's reproductive phase is called the menopause, which commonly occurs somewhere between the ages of 45 and 55.
*The menstrual cyclis the scientific term for the physiological changes that can occur in fertile women. Menstruation occurs periodically once a month. In average, the monthly cycle needs about 28 ± 7 days each month (once a week). It means, the cycle can be earlier or later for about 1 week.
The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system, is necessary for reproduction. It is commonly divided into four phases:  Menstruation, Pre-ovulation, Ovulation, and Post ovulation.
*Ovum forming process and menstruation occurs cyclically. There are four stages  in for one cycle:
- Menstruation (day 1-7).
- Pre-ovulation  (day 7-13),
- Ovulation (Ovulation usually occurs on 14th day of menstration).
- Post-ovulation (day 15-28),
*A) MENSTRUATION (DAY 1-7)
Menstruation (day 1-7), releasing uterus wall because of decreasing  sex hormone concentration in the body.
First day of the menstrual cycle is the day bleeding begins. Bleeding or menstrual flow last about three to five days. By the seventh day of the cycle, eggs in the ovaries begin to ripen due to various hormonal changes.
*B) PRE-OVULATION (DAY 7-13)
Pre-ovulation (day 7-13), the time when ovum is produced and matured in the ovary. It was induced by increasing the body’s estrogen.     Between the seventh and the eleventh days, the lining of the uterus begins to thicken and it is possible to observe changes in the presence and consistency of cervical fluids. After the eleventh day, luteinizing hormone cause the egg that is most ripe to be released from the ovary and begin its travel down the fallopian tubes to the uterus.
*C) OVULATION
Ovulation, the time when ovum is related from ovary. For women with a 28-day cycle, ovulation (the release of the egg) should take place on about the 14th Day  or the very middle of the menstrual cycle.
*D) POST-OVULATION (DAY 15-28)
Post ovulation (day 15-28), the time of deterioration of ovum if fertilization does not occurs. In this stage, progesterone production increases so endometrium thickens. Now, endometrium is ready to receive embryo that will develop. If fertilization does not occurs, sex hormones will decrease so endometrium will be released.

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